This week’s blog is written by Marilyn Hall, Water Conservation Coordinator for Athens-Clarke County, Georgia
We are in between droughts. There is no better time to prepare.
To help water providers prepare for the next inevitable drought, the Georgia DNR Board adopted rules that replaced the Outdoor Water Use Rules in August of 2015. As far as I can tell there has been little, if any, information developed to help utilities, irrigation/ landscape professionals, and other water users implement these rules. They are confusing, but in a nutshell, the new “Drought Management” rule does four things: creates provisions for a drought response committee; requires pre-drought mitigation strategies; introduces new drought indicators and triggers; and requires a series of drought response strategies.
There are substantial changes in the new rules that require new and specific actions. The rule introduces three new drought levels. The first level requires a little bit of public notice and the third requires nearly an outdoor watering ban plus mandatory drought surcharges and other actions that many utilities and water users may find challenging and should prepare for.
In order to make sense of the new rules and how they will impact utilities and water users, the Georgia Water Wise Council has enlisted the assistance of law students at the University of Georgia to develop a Guidance Document for the Drought Rules. This guidance should be ready in March, 2016. In the meantime it is important for Utilities to start preparing for some of the requirements now. The most urgent of which is conservation rates.
Local water systems that do not have water rate conservation pricing in place are required to develop a “drought surcharge program” by June 24, 2016. These surcharge rates would be required under a Level 3 Drought Response. EPD considers the surcharge to be a “temporary price incentive for customers to reduce water demand during a declared drought”(Responses to Comments Received During the Public Comment Period April 13, 2015-May 13, 2015 ). Some systems that demonstrate to EPD that their billing systems are unable to charge distinctive rates or are unable to apply a surcharge rate only to the volumetric portion of the bill may be exempt from this requirement.
To learn more about conservation rates look at the EPD Guidance Document prepared in August 2007, “Conservation-Oriented Rate Structures” (http://www1.gadnr.org/cws/Documents/Conservation_Rate_Structures.pdf)
Recognizing that at any given time we are either in a drought or in between droughts, EPD introduces a “predrought” condition with this rule. During predrought times the odd even schedule does not apply. The rule is consistent with the Water Stewardship Act and allows for outdoor water use 7 days a week after 4:00 PM and before 10:00 AM. Exemptions like drip irrigation, wells, food gardens, etc have not changed.
The predrought mitigation strategies apply only to outdoor water uses for the purposes of planting, growing, managing, or maintaining ground cover, trees, shrubs, or other plants. This leaves predrought restrictions on outdoor water uses such as pressure washing, swimming pools, fountains, etc unclear. It is up to local governments to apply limits to these water uses during non-drought periods if needed to ensure drought resilience. (This is just my take on this, don’t modify your ordinances before confirming with EPD.)
Drought declaration decisions will be made by EPD using a set of drought indicators. There are three Drought Response Levels that build on one another. In other words, Level 2 requires that both Level 1 and Level 2 requirements be implemented. All that is required in Level 1 is the implementation of a minimal public information campaign that only includes public notice regarding drought conditions. If your area is entering a drought it would be a good idea to ramp up your public outreach efforts above and beyond the minimum requirement. A good source of water conservation materials for customers is EPA’s WaterSense Program.
Drought Response Level 2 brings back the familiar odd/even schedule. Outdoor irrigation can occur on Thursday and Sunday for odd addresses and on Wednesday and Saturday for even addresses. Watering cannot occur between 10:00 AM and 4:00 PM. All the non-drought exemptions still apply. For example, drip irrigation and watering of plants for sale can go on without any restrictions. Drought Response Level 2 is where the non-plant related outdoor water use restrictions kick in. Using water to wash hard surfaces, fountains, and car washing are not allowed. This is also when the Drought Response Menu comes into play. Water providers must implement four or more of the menu items and submit a monthly report to EPD detailing their chosen strategies and the extent of implementation and enforcement during level 2.
Drought Response Level 3 does not allow for any outdoor irrigation, however many of the non-drought exemptions still apply. For example, hand watering, watering of food gardens, and golf courses is allowed twice a week and professional landscapers can still install and work on irrigation systems.
When Drought Level 3 is declared, public water systems must adopt every strategy on the Menu, including drought surcharges. A utility does not have to adopt drought surcharges if they have a tiered rate system, do not serve retail customers, or their billing system cannot implement them. It is up to the discretion of EPD whether they will implement numeric reduction requirements during Drought Level 3.
The new Drought Rules will impact a wide variety of groups and individuals. The WaterWise Council promotes sound water efficient policies and practices in Georgia by bringing together environmental NGOs, water industry professionals, and green industry professionals. As such, the council represents a well-balanced view of water issues. The Council asked the University of Georgia law students who are working on the guidance document to consider the Rule’s impact on water providers and a variety of different water users including landscape and irrigation professionals.
Stay tuned, in March there should be some good guidance on what these rules mean to you as a water user or water provider. In the meantime, remember that we are in between drought so be smart. You have control about how severely the next drought will impact you. Be smart about what you plant, the plumbing fixtures you install, and your water use habits. When a drought comes, and you know it will, you will be ready.